May 25, 2016
Sunshine is important for health, but you must first assess your current situation to get the full benefit of sunshine exposure without burning and increasing risk of skin cancer. This newsletter discusses the proper time to be in the sun, and introduces a helpful way to track sun exposure. Keywords: Sunshine, Erythema Dose, Skin Cancer, Melanoma, dminder, Sun4Health*action, Sunscreen, Dr. Gorham, CME
May 18, 2016
This week's newsletter continues the discussion of using sunlight for health, with a focus on the UV index, a numerical comparison between the risk and benefit of sunlight and disease, supported by new research and resources. Keywords: Sunshine Month, Sun Exposure, Dr. Garland, UV Index
May 11, 2016
To help illustrate the need for evaluating benefits and risk of sun exposure for health, this newsletter profiles Dr. Richard Weller, who has succinctly explained why sun is good, even with the risk it poses to skin cancer. In addition we explain the first key to understanding sensible sun exposure - skin type. Keywords: Sunshine Month, Sun Exposure, Dr. Weller, skin type, Sunny Hippocrates
May 5, 2016
In an effort to increase public awareness of the importance of sunshine to human health, we are declaring May to be "National Sunshine Month." Over the next four weeks, we will teach you how to Harness the Power of the Sun for Health. Our goal is to provide you with education and tools to (1) assess your current situation, (2) set sunshine goals, (3) track vitamin D levels, and (4) record health outcomes. Keywords: Sunshine Month, Sun Exposure, Dr. Wunsch, Sunny Hippocrates
April 27, 2016
Now that we see very clearly and unambiguously that vitamin D does have a role in reducing the risk of cancer, how can we DO something? We are inviting sponsors to step in and provide a major reward to you, the participant, in the form of a coupon for future products from their outlet! Encourage stores, groups or businesses that you have a personal relationship with to become a D*action sponsor. Keywords: Sponsors, Coupons, Cancer, New Research, Cancer Interview, Sharon McDonnell, Sunshine Month
April 13, 2016
This week, please enjoy the stories from others about how they are treating their conditions with vitamin D and remember to get yourself up-to-date. If you haven't tested your D level in the last 6 months then you are due. Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Hashimoto's and Lyme Disease, Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR), Ankylosing Spondylitis, vision, Personal Stories
April 6, 2016
Today, April 6, 2016, is the release of a truly definitive paper about vitamin D and cancer. Our plea to ALL of you--please, please help get the attention of everyone to the idea that we CAN greatly reduce the risk of cancer by getting vitamin D levels to at least 40 ng/ml. It's urgent, it's also very, very wasteful for no attention to be paid! Help us take very aggressive action now! Keywords: Cancer, Cancer Risk, Cancer Study, Vitamin D Workshop
March 30, 2016
This week's newsletter presents a final round of information on vitamin D and MS, including an interview with Dr. Reinhold Vieth, a review of the SOLAR study, and an exciting announcement about the largest managed care organization in the US recommending more sun for better health! Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, MS, MS Research, Dr. Reinhold Vieth, the SOLAR study, Kaiser Permanente
March 23, 2016
This newsletter presents another perspective on how a life with MS can be bettered with vitamin D by detailing a study conducted by a researcher on herself, after being diagnosed with MS. Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, MS, MS Research, Dr. Barbara van Amerongen
March 16, 2016
MS organizations are funding research, but it may not adequately represent vitamin D's potential. Our hope is that by this time next year we can report on a study, which will have been funded by a major MS organization, showing the efficacy of vitamin D and MS or a new standard of care to prevent MS - or as the National MS Society says - "a world free of MS." Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, MS, MS Research, Dr. Cedric Garland, Sunshine, Latitude
March 9, 2016
Maybe you don't have MS. Maybe you have another condition. We would like to hear from you! This week we are presenting two success stories from the Coimbra Protocol. Both Brazilian women. Both with long-term success. Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, MS, Dr. Coimbra
March 2, 2016
Vitamin D is great for prevention of disease, but what about treatment after you've been diagnosed? Since March is National Multiple Sclerosis month, now is the perfect time to bring it out into the light.The protocol we'll be highlighting in this newsletter was developed by Dr. Cicero Coimbra of Brazil. Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, MS, Dr. Coimbra
February 24, 2016
It is more important now than ever to continue with D*action. The more participants we have who regularly test and report health outcomes (every 6 months is ideal) - the more powerful our data, our research, and our ability to reach out and spread the word. Keywords: Testing, research, supplementation, special offer
February 17, 2016
One of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease is diabetes - a disease known to be associated with vitamin D status. While the association has been documented for many years, including a 2008 analysis showing a connection to latitude, we were recently able to use your D*action data to help isolate the range of vitamin D status that appears to be most closely associated with type 2 diabetes. Keywords: Heart Health, Type 2 Diabetes, nutrient curve, s-shaped curve, system response
February 10, 2016
We are proud to announce HYLIONTM: a set of tools developed with your help and input over the past several years designed to facilitate moving research into practice... NOW! Keywords: Hylion, Nutrients, Translational Research
February 3, 2016
As with many conditions, we believe vitamin D deficiency to be another risk factor to consider for cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure. The number of ways in which vitamin D helps prevent CVD are presented to you in this week's newsletter. Keywords: Heart Disease, CVD, stroke, Dr. Sane, Dr. Giovannucci, Dr. Wang
January 27, 2016
At this point, we have seen so many problems with the design of RCT's that get in the way of making public health decisions, i.e., does the nutrient benefit health? At what levels? What can we do? In the trial described in this newsletter, The Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART), there are several areas where the information we need is missing.... Keywords: RCTs, P value, Dr. Bruce Hollis, public health
January 20, 2016
Today we're presenting yet another set of vitamin D information from a different research point of view - enzymology. We also continue to provide you some significant ways of looking at vitamin D research and what is found that is beyond the immediate news headlines. Keywords: Bischoff-Ferrari Study, Dosing Interval, Enzymology, Reinhold Vieth Interview
January 14, 2016
This week we are providing you with the information you need to better understand the research out there, and how to see beyond the headlines found in the mainstream press. Please help spread the truth - that vitamin D is safe, and should be received daily. Keywords: Bischoff-Ferrari Study, Dosing Interval, Clinical Trials
January 6, 2016
Dementia encompasses a broad category of brain diseases that cause long term and gradual decline of brain function, usually starting with memory loss and increasing to loss of bodily functions. This newsletter references a number of different research papers about this subject as well as a GrassrootsHealth webinar video on vitamin D and Alzheimer's prevention. Keywords: Alzheimer's, Dementia
December 30, 2015
GrassrootsHealth will be initiating a pilot early this coming year to capture Your Nutrient Profile data as an optional part of our questionnaire for our ongoing analysis. With your participation, we can use your shared information about what other nutrients you take, how much, when, in what form, even what brands you take, and start analyzing the data for everyone to answer questions about the impact of a combination of nutrients on your health. Keywords: Nutrients, Health Conditions, Vitamin K, Magnesium, Calcium
December 16, 2015
Your participation in the D*action project as well as the implementation of our Protect our Children NOW! project at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) are demonstrating that vitamin D CAN and IS being accepted and implemented in institutional settings as well as with the general public. These are major milestones demonstrating that in today's technological/communication world, we need new methods to rapidly expand the results of research into yet another major area of evidence based implementation. Keywords: MUSC, Methodology, Pregnancy, Placenta
December 10, 2015
This week we introduce the D*calculator, something extremely basic, to allow you to use the published information from our research and, that of others, to give you some measurement guides for how much vitamin D to take. Keywords: D*calculator, Vitamin D Intake vs. Serum 25(OH)D
December 2, 2015
Dr. Robert Heaney was presented with a Lifetime Recognition award at the US House of Representatives on his birthday, November 10th. As our Research Director he has been very instrumental in helping guide everything from our thinking processes about research to the writing and production of the research. By this Friday, December 4th, please take a moment and share your personal appreciation for his service for a special award to him from GrassrootsHealth. Keywords: Heaney, Test, Measurement, D*advocate
November 25, 2015
Thank you for being a part of GrassrootsHealth, whether you started out with us at our first seminar in December of 2008, or just found out about us today, we appreciate your support and your own efforts to spread the word about vitamin D. Keywords: Thanks, D*action, Breast Cancer Study, Protect Our Children NOW!
November 18, 2015
Did you know that adequate vitamin D can not only support good oral hygiene but also heal existing cavities? And would it surprise you to learn that the vitamin D level of a mother will affect the oral health of her children? Read more about vitamin D and diet for oral health, and get the latest on serum vitamin D levels of summer lifeguards. Keywords: Oral Health, Cavities, Lifeguards
November 12, 2015
This week we are honored to announce a new paper that clearly shows the >50% reduction in risk of preterm birth with a vitamin D serum level of at least 40 ng/mL from a randomized controlled trial done by Hollis and Wagner. We realize that many of you reading this are not pregnant. But... do you have children? Grandchildren? Think about the importance of this information. Could you help spread the word? Keywords: Pregnancy, March of Dimes, Comparison Chart, LOESS Curve, D*party
November 4, 2015
As we enter the winter here in the Northern Hemisphere, it is important to be aware that over the next several months, the sun will not be a good source for vitamin D. This is our Vitamin D Winter. To learn more, listen to our featured video of the week, sunshine calendar, and other information featured in this newsletter. Keywords: Winter, Gombart, Sunshine Calendar
October 28, 2015
We are creating a deficiency by misunderstanding and, lack of knowledge. Key Fact: Our bodies' vitamin D production was programmed to be primarily through the skin, from sunshine. But can you get the amount of vitamin D you need from sun alone, and if so, how? Keywords: Sunlight, Sunscreen, Serum Level by Sun Exposure
October 21, 2015
At this time, we don't have food sources of vitamin D that provide enough to meet our daily needs. This is changing, however. While certain food sources can contribute significantly to vitamin D status, it is likely that vitamin D supplementation will remain key to improving vitamin D status at a population level. The KEY is still to monitor our serum levels with our individual lifestyles. If, indeed, you are able to get your serum level to 40 ng/ml without supplements, go for it! Keywords: Food, Milk, Diet
October 14, 2015
Today is the first of three newsletters that discuss different ways we could be tackling vitamin D deficiency world-wide. This first news is centered around food fortification. Keywords: Whiting, Fortification, Lappe, D*action, Non-Skin Cancer Cases
October 7, 2015
A clinical trial led by Joan Lappe, PhD, RN, FAAN, at Crieghton University found that women given vitamin D and calcium were diagnosed with 80% fewer cases of non-skin cancer than women who received a placebo. GrassrootsHealth was given access to the data from the Lappe trial to compare it to the D*action data. Read on for the results of that analysis, as well as a letter from Dr. Cedric Garland, How to Prevent Breast Cancer. Keywords: Breast Cancer, Cancer, Lappe
October 1, 2015
It's time to change the questions that are asked, the range of answers that are given, i.e., it's time to change the game. Learn how you can take action to help prevent breast cancer in those you love and those around you, and just do it! Keywords: Breast Cancer, Treatments, Prevention, Breast Cancer Study
September 23, 2015
Many of you have asked us over the years how you can help - we have found a way - we are launching D*party. This is a way for you to host a gathering where people can be informed about vitamin D and take the next step - test their level and join D*action - to support moving research into practice. Keywords: D*party, Group Vitamin D Serum Levels
September 16, 2015
Many of us struggle with how to get to the recommended vitamin D serum level of 40-60 ng/ml. Should we choose sun? Food? Supplementation? This newsletter and included charts and example will help determine exactly how to reach your goal. Keywords: Supplements, Supplementation Amounts, Supplementation Chart, Medical Staff Vitamin D Levels
September 10, 2015
In this newsletter, we announce that MUSC, under the direction of Dr. Roger Newman, has implemented a new standard of care which includes testing the vitamin D level of every new pregnant woman. Also discussed are the steps and average time it takes to move research into practice, how that time can be improved, and what GrassrootsHealth has in place now to address the issue. Keywords: MUSC, Change in Practice
September 2, 2015
Coming over the next several months, we'll take you along as we launch new research projects which will enlarge our base of scientific support and, provide yet more answers for you. In addition, we will be working on a number of 'Special Projects' with the aim of quick turnaround time for answers that could affect your health actions in the short term. This month, we're announcing our first 'Special Project' ... Keywords: Cold, Flu, Scientist Panel
View answers to this newsletter by Dr. Camargo here.
August 26, 2015
Since the start of GrassrootsHealth, two of the most common questions asked have been "How much vitamin D should I take?" and "Is vitamin D toxic?". This week we provide a detailed answer to each of those questions, and offer you an opportunity to ask further questions about toxicity to one of the field's leading experts. This is a newsletter to share with all your friends and family! Keywords: Toxicity, Serum Levels
View answers to this newsletter by Dr. Cannell here.
August 19, 2015
Our highlighted article this week is from Dr. Robert Heaney about the role vitamin D has played in the evolution of our species. Also featured is a fun, new children's book all about vitamin D! And, please make use of our resource, Ask a Scientist, to ask any questions you have related to today's information. Keywords: Heaney, Human Tree, Children's Book
View answers to this newsletter by Drs. Heaney and Garland here.
August 12, 2015
This week we're sharing the story of one of our D*action participants - how regular testing of his D levels showed how much his level dropped when he got sick. Keywords: Utilization, Resolutions
View answers to this newsletter by Dr. Grant here.
August 5, 2015
Our latest paper, just published with YOUR Data, shows a full 60% lower rate of incidence of type 2 diabetes with our median serum level of 41 ng/ml vs.the NHANES median of 22 ng/ml. Read more on this topic, and how you can help by donating to make this publication Open Source - so everyone can access it. Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes, Scragg
View answers to this newsletter by Dr. Scragg here.
July 29, 2015
As you read further into this newsletter, you will learn some of the groundbreaking information that came from a couple of our panel scientists last year. Drs Bruce Hollis and Carol Wager published a paper on why dose intervals are important for vitamin D function. Read up on this very important information, and use the link included to ask the scientists your questions about this information. Keywords: Dosing, Daily, Weekly, Monthly, Hollis
View answers to this newsletter by Dr. Hollis here.
July 22, 2015
We have the honor of announcing that one of our panel scientists, Cedric Garland, Dr. PH, FACE, was recently bestowed a Knighthood in the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic. Congratulations Dr. Garland! Keywords: Garland, Cancer, Sunlight, Cancer Map
July 15, 2015
This week's newsletter discusses the latest discoveries in breast cancer and vitamin D research, featuring an interview with Dr. JoEllen Welsh and a breast cancer Call to Action by GrassrootsHealth director and breast cancer survivor, Carole Baggerly. Keywords: Breast Cancer, Welsh
July 8, 2015
How do you get what you want? MEASURE IT! This week's newsletter focuses on measurement - to achieve health goals and, vitamin D goals. Why is it important to measure vitamin D, what exactly is measured, and what do we learn from measurement? These questions and more are answered here. Keywords: Measurement, Variability, Serum Level by Supplement Amount chart
July 1, 2015
News outlets across the globe have been reporting a resurgence of rickets, a disease caused by severe vitamin D deficiency. So much pain could be avoided and children could start off on the right track, if doctors knew that pregnant mothers need to be vitamin D replete and children need it starting their first few days of life. Keywords: Rickets, Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, Babies
June 24, 2015
Humans have adapted to sun exposure over many thousands of years and derive numerous physiological benefits from UV exposure in addition to vitamin D. These benefits cannot be derived from vitamin D intake by supplements, and therefore sun avoidance, the recommendation by the US Surgeon General and others, is unnecessarily putting people at risk.
June 17, 2015
One of the most frequently asked questions we receive at GrassrootsHealth is "What is the difference between vitamin D2 and vitamin D3?" This newsletter provides information on how each form is made, why they are used, and which is better (according to the experts). We also ask you to participate in a quick survey to let us know what more we can focus on for your health.
June 10, 2015
The health of women during pregnancy determines the future health of her child, and there is evidence that her health affects the next generation as well. As of today, June 10, 2015, GrassrootsHealth is offering FREE vitamin D blood spot testing for the first 100 pregnant women who enroll in Protect our Children NOW!
May 27, 2015
Vitamin D was first studied to improve bone health and eradicate rickets. Almost every doctor is aware that vitamin D is important for skeletal health. There are thousands of studies that back up this point. But what have we found through our D*action data? Any differences? Keywords: Falls, Fractures, Calcium, Bones
May 20, 2015
As part of the D*action questionnaire, we ask participants to describe their typical physical activity during the past 12 months. In this newsletter we take a look at our D*action data, 7000 members strong, to see... does exercise help vitamin D absorption? Keywords: Physical Activity, Exercise
May 13, 2015
Institutions move with glacial slowness, as Dr. Robert Heaney mentions in the interview featured in this newsletter. So, we need to act now for our own benefit. The good news is that for a single person or a single medical practice, this is relatively easy. Read more for how to create your own change. Keywords: RDA, Dosing
May 6, 2015
The focus of this week's newsletter is on cancer, which is very near to our heart since cancer was the impetus into our research on vitamin D and the catalyst behind GrassrootsHealth. If you have not heard this story yet, please read the newsletter and view the featured video.
April 29, 2015
This newsletter shares a personal story from a GrassrootsHealth D*action participant about his experience with prostate cancer, as well as an abundance of resources on the topic, and a quick look at highlights from the 2015 Vitamin D Workshop in Delft, the Netherlands.
April 22, 2015
This week we share a personal story about how vitamin D changed a participant's life, and include additional resources on vitamin D's disease-fighting capabilities. Do you have a vitamin D story to share? Let us know!
April 15, 2015
One of the most common questions we receive is how much vitamin D should I take to get my serum level to the desired range (40-60 ng/ml)? There is no simple answer, no magic bullet, as everyone's body is different. But here is the information you need, from our D*action data, to help you find a starting point to optimize your vitamin D level.
April 8, 2015
This week we want to give you some insight on how GrassrootsHealth collects data through D*action, why we collect the data we do, and how it is used to help move research into practice.
April 2, 2015
Recently there have been very negative articles in the Toronto Globe and Mail about vitamin D. They are, in part, a reaction to the ad campaign by Pure North S'Energy Foundation, a Canadian non-profit organization trying to convince Health Canada and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to reconsider the RDA. Here we include an overview of the latest, and what our scientists have to say.
March 25, 2015
The Protect our Children NOW! project launches on April 7th, 2015, to implement vitamin D testing and supplementation of pregnant women as standard of care. Learn more about this project and its aim to help them achieve a serum level of at least 40 ng/ml to aid in prevention of many comorbidities of pregnancy.
March 18, 2015
A study was recently published that showed a U-shaped curve with respect to vitamin D serum – meaning that upper levels of vitamin D (50 ng/ml) could be harmful for disease or mortality. Read GrassrootsHealth scientists’ comments and review papers which refute this study.
March 11, 2015
Read about how GrassrootsHealth is implementing CHANGE - through the Protect Our Children NOW! program, launching in South Carolina next month, and through the successful publication of our letter in response to a paper from Paul J. Veugelers, PhD, which showed through statistical analysis, using the data the IOM was given to compute the RDA, that the IOM made an error in their analysis and that the RDA should be 8895 IU/day.
March 4, 2015
To this end, 'Success,' we are asking you to please take a few minutes this week to answer a survey about how we can add value to YOU as a participant in this process. We have some great things... what matters most to you? And, what else would you like to see?
February 25, 2015
This newsletter highlights a recent study that caught our eye for all the wrong reasons. Read up about that study and decide for yourself whether it could be considered controversy or self-interest. Also included are interviews with D*action participants, and the importance of getting your follow-up tests.
February 18, 2015
We wrote this newsletter for you to take grassroots action. The information included is meant for someone new to vitamin D. For most on our subscription list this is old news. But our hope is for you to take a moment, open it up, and forward this newsletter to at least 5 people you know. Take D*action now!
February 11, 2015
In this newsletter, we welcome Candace Leenheer, our new customer service representative! She started with GrassrootsHealth at the beginning of 2015, so if you have needed help - you have probably communicated with her. Great to have you join us Candace!
February 4, 2015
Our initial DIP chart has been instrumental as a communication tool in clinics, doctor's offices, and community centers across the country. This new chart focuses on pregnancy and the child and is a great way to visually share the key research that we have written about in the last few newsletters.
January 28, 2015
GrassrootsHealth collaborated with Dr. Carol Wagner of MUSC and other researchers to publish a new paper that demonstrates 1) maternal vitamin D status closest to delivery date is more significantly associated with preterm birth and 2) participants with a serum 25(OH)D concentration of at least 40 ng/ml in the 3rd trimester had a 47% reduction in preterm birth when compared to those with a concentration less than 40 ng/ml.
January 21, 2015
Our focus has always been that 20 ng/ml was not sufficient. It turns out that there's an even more serious problem: a review of the IOM's statistical methods shows that they were not correct - 600 IU/day will not get 97.5% of the population to 20 ng/ml. Instead it will only get 50% of the population to that level. More on that, and, an exciting upcoming webinar with the Organic & Natural Health Association.
January 14, 2015
This week we want to share D*action data with respect to how much time participants are regularly in the sun due to their occupation and whether that affects serum level or supplementation habits.
January 7, 2015
Much has happened that has helped structure our organization to meet your needs. We are pleased to share our 'state of the union' letter to start out the New Year.
December 31, 2014
Happy New Year! We would like to hear your New Year's goals and thus are launching the contest described in this newsletter. We will be reading each entry, so please enter!
December 24, 2014
This holiday let's give the gift of knowledge and prevention! Here's how...
December 17, 2014
At our seminar last week, a new member of our scientist panel, Dr. Alexander Wunsch of Wismar University of Applied Sciences, Germany, gave a talk on "Why the Sun is Necessary for Optimal Health." This newsletter summarizes his key points and more on the power of sunshine for our health.
December 10, 2014
The GrassrootsHealth D*action cohort, comprised of 7,123 members, is spread across 51 different countries. With such a diverse sample population, does location as measured by latitude play a part?
December 3, 2014
MEASUREMENT provides every individual with the information needed to make a logical, informed decision about their health. In this newsletter we discuss how it puts you in charge.
November 26, 2014
On the eve of Thanksgiving we would like to take the time to thank you, our participants and followers, for all the work that has been done since we founded GrassrootsHealth in 2007.
November 19, 2014
We cannot answer all of your questions in one newsletter. Instead, we want to tell you how those questions are guiding us, who is along for the ride, and how you can look forward to more answers going forward.
November 5, 2014
In this issue of our newsletter we revisit the D*action cohort for more of Your Data, Your Answers. We analyze the data many different ways and this month we wanted to show you how your vitamin D replete community looks with respect to age.
October 29, 2014
As Vitamin D Day (November 2) approaches, we can all do our part to help spread the word about this deficiency epidemic. I hope you all take a moment to review some of the basic facts about vitamin D below and then share the information with others.
October 23, 2014
This seminar, presented by UC San Diego School of Medicine and GrassrootsHealth, has been developed as an educational opportunity to present and discuss the science of vitamin D and sunshine. The objective of the meeting is to leave with an implementation plan for your group – using vitamin D and sunshine to optimize health.
October 15, 2014
In this newsletter we give you a peek at some of the D*action data as it relates to gender. Sometimes the data is surprising and other times, it is what you expect. Either way, you have to look at it to know.
October 8, 2014
The sun can help our health when we use its power wisely, and avoiding it can be detrimental. GrassrootsHealth asked some of our panel of experts about sunshine, and compiled some of their responses to share with you.
October 1, 2014
At GrassrootsHealth, October is Breast Cancer Prevention Month. We don't need a special month to be aware. Let's change the focus this month - let's prevent breast cancer.
September 24, 2014
This newsletter is dedicated to answering common questions regarding D*action, the process, the blood spot kit itself, and Vitamin D health in general.
September 17, 2014
Take *action! GrassrootsHealth has developed a platform that will kickstart Protect Our Children NOW! in your community.
September 10, 2014
This newsletter is the second in a three-part series about GrassrootsHealth and the results of our crowdfunded D*action project.
September 3, 2014
This newsletter is the start of a three-part series on crowdfunding. It has become a wave for startup companies on the Internet, but from our knowledge GrassrootsHealth is the first public health project to be crowdfunded.
August 27, 2014
The mainstream medical field thinks of vitamin D only for bone health but we want them to broaden this perspective to include proper cell growth and healing. Dr. Bruce Hollis demonstrates why treatment of vitamin D for these two things are vastly different - how vitamin D is absorbed into the system, used, and then stays in the system to continue to heal.
July 16, 2014
April 1, 2014
February 18, 2014
January 11, 2014